Drug and Alcohol Testing Definitions

Alcohol Screening Device

“Alcohol Screening Device” (ASD) is a breath or saliva device other than an EBT that is approved by NHTSA and placed on a Conforming Products list for such devices.

Alcohol Concentration

“Alcohol Concentration” or “Alcohol Content” is the alcohol in a volume of breath expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per two hundred and ten (210) liters of breath as indicated by an alcohol test.

Adulterated Sample

“Adulterated Sample” is a specimen that contains a substance that is not expected to be present in human urine or a substance that is expected to be present but is at a concentration so high that it is not consistent with human urine.

Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT)

“Breath Alcohol Technician” (BAT) is an individual who instructs and assists individuals in the alcohol testing process and operates an evidential breath-testing device in accordance with the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation.

Chain of Custody

“Chain of Custody” is the procedure used to document the handling of the urine specimen from the time the individual gives the specimen to the collector until the specimen is destroyed.

Alcohol Confirmation Test

“Alcohol Confirmation Test” is a breath test using an evidential breath testing device (EBT) capable of printing results and approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and placed on its “Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Measurement Devices” used to determine whether an individual may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath specimen. Such testing must be performed by a certified Breath Alcohol Technician. It can be a second test following an alcohol screening test which indicates an alcohol concentration of 0.02 percent or greater.


“Collector” is a person who instructs and assists individuals, who receives and makes an initial inspection of the specimen provided by those individuals, who initiates and completes the Custody and Control Form (CCF) and who is trained according to either United States Department of Transportation standards for DOT regulated donors or Heath and Human Services standards for non-federally-regulated donors.


“Donor” is an individual who has provided a urine sample in the course of completing a drug test.

Medical Review Officer (MRO)

“Medical Review Officer (MRO)” is a properly licensed physician who receives and reviews the results of drug tests and evaluates those results together with medical history or any other relevant biomedical information to confirm positive results.

Reasonable Suspicion Testing

“Reasonable Suspicion” for DOT regulated testing refers to the employers’ determination that reasonable suspicion exists that a safety-sensitive employee may have broken a substance abuse prohibition. The decision to test must be based on specific, timely and describable observations of appearance, behavior, speech and/or body odor. One or more of the referring supervisors/managers must be trained in the detection of the misuse of alcohol and the use of controlled substances.

“Reasonable Suspicion” for non-DOT regulated testing refers to the employers’ judgment that an employee has violated the State’s Alcohol and Other Drug Free Workplace Policy. This judgment should be made as a result of an employee’s behavior, appearance, speech, body odor and/or job performance that is observed by a supervisor/manager or reported by a reliable individual and verified. The decision to test must be based on specific, timely and describable observations of physical, behavioral or performance indicators. These indicators include but are not limited to:

i. An on-the-job incident, such as a medical emergency, that is likely to be attributable to illegal drug use by an employee;

ii. Observation of behavior exhibited by an employee that might render the employee unable to perform his/her job or that might pose a threat to the safety or health of the employee, fellow employees, or the general public;

iii. Verifiable information that an employee may be illegally using drugs or under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol;

iv. Physical on-the-job evidence of drug use by an employee;

v. Documented deterioration in an employee’s job performance that is likely to be attributable to drug use by the employee;

vi. The results of other scientific test(s) that may tend to indicate possible use of drugs or alcohol; or

vii. Any other specific, timely and describable action that would give an Appointing Authority reason to suspect that an employee may have broken a substance abuse prohibition.

Split Specimen

“Split Specimen” is part of the DOT regulated urine specimen that is sent to the first laboratory and retained unopened, and which is transported to a second laboratory in the event that the individual requests that it be tested following a verified positive  test of the primary specimen or a verified adulterated or substituted test result.

Substance Abuse Professional

“Substance Abuse Professional” is a licensed physician (Medical Doctor or Doctor of Osteopathy), or a licensed or certified psychologist, social worker, employee assistance professional (EAP), addiction counselor (certified by the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors Certification Commission), or marriage and family counselor. This professional must: be knowledgeable of and experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled substances related disorders; be knowledgeable about the SAP function as it relates to employer interests in safety-sensitive duties per 49 CFR 40 for the federally-regulated agency regulations applicable to the employers for whom they evaluate employees; be knowledgeable of the DOT SAP Guidelines; receive qualification training on seven key, defined areas by a qualified trainer; satisfactorily complete an examination administered by a nationally-recognized professional or training organization; and satisfactorily complete at least 12 professional development hours of continuing education every three years.